The former world No. 1 lost his highly anticipated return to the Frenchman 6-4, 6-4.
Murray underwent hip-resurfacing surgery earlier this year after a first-round exit at the Australian Open in January and had been sidelined from singles play ever since.
He made his return to action playing doubles at Queen’s Club in June — where he lifted the trophy with partner Feliciano Lopez.
Murray, 32, has won three majors and in 2013 became the first British man to win a Wimbledon singles title since 1936.